Smoking-cancer link established
Sir Richard Doll establishes a clear link between smoking and lung cancer. In the 1940s, British scientist Doll begins research into lung cancer after incidences of the disease rise alarmingly. He studies lung cancer patients in 20 London hospitals, and he expects to reveal that the cause is fumes from coal fires, car fumes or Tarmac. His findings surprise him and he publishes a study in the British Medical Journal, co-written with Sir Austin Bradford Hill, warning that smokers are far more likely than non-smokers to die of lung cancer. Doll gives up smoking two-thirds of the way through his study and lives to be 92.